Colon Cancer

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Colon Cancer

What is Large Intestine Cancer?

150,000 people get this cancer every year (America). In our country, 30,000 people are diagnosed with this disease every year.

Anatomy

The large intestine is approximately 200 cm long. The upper part, which is 150-180 cm, is called "large intestine" and the lower part, which is 15-18 cm long, is called "rectum".

Protection and Early Diagnosis

Early diagnosis is very important in cancer. The sooner it is recognized, the better the results will be. "Rectal examination" is important during patient examination. Tumors in this region can be detected with an examination performed with gloves. Again, the "fecal occult blood" test is important in early diagnosis. This test should be performed once a year starting from the age of 50. A colonoscopy examination every 5 years, starting from the age of 50, will help detect cancers in this region at an early stage.

What are the Complaints and Findings?

Diarrhea and constipation. Seeing blood mixed with the stool. Change in toilet habits. Thinner and smaller stool diameter. Abdominal pain, increase in gas pain. Inability to relax after defecation. Weight loss. Weakness and loss of appetite.

Diseases Involved

Sometimes these complaints can also be seen in hemorrhoids, ulcers, inflammatory bowel diseases, and diverticulum diseases.

What are the Diagnostic Methods?

Barium colon and rectum radiography, Colonoscopy (Examination of the inside of the intestine with a lighted tube) Computed Tomography, MRI PET CEA (Carcino embryogenic antigen) blood test. In the presence of cancer, the blood value increases.

Large Intestine Cancer Causes and Prevention

Polyps: They are benign masses. However, sometimes it can turn into cancer. Removing polyps using the colonoscopic method can prevent cancer formation. Family history: Having cancer in close relatives increases the risk of cancer formation. Age: The risk of colorectal cancer increases over the age of 50. Diet: Foods high in fat, rich in red meat, low in fruits and vegetables, and low in fiber increase the risk of developing this cancer. Familial Polyposis: It is a hereditary disease and hundreds of polyps form in the intestine. These polyps have a high risk of becoming cancerous. If left untreated, 0 becomes cancerous. Obesity, life away from exercise, diabetes, diet with low fiber foods, presence of inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The following precautions are recommended diets for prevention. Fiber foods, whole wheat bread and grain products, eating fiber foods, eating away from fatty foods and red meat, eating foods based on vegetables and fruits, staying away from dried and barbecued meats are protective factors in the development of colon cancer.

Treatment of Colon Cancers

Colon cancer; It is treated surgically. The tumor causing the cancer and some surrounding healthy tissue are removed. The solid ends are joined mutually. Chemotherapy is applied depending on the stage of the colon cancer. In tumors very close to the anus, the anus is removed and defecation is performed from the abdomen using colostomy bags. In cases that spread to other organs, which we call metastasis, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are applied in addition to surgery to try to extend the life of the patient.
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